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Copyright Definitions

Cumulative Effect

The copying of the material is for only one course in the school in which the copies are given:

  • No more than one short poem, article, story, essay, or two excerpts may be copied from the same author
  • No more than three copies from the same collective work or periodical volume during one class term
  • No more than nine instances of such multiple copying for one course during one class term

The limitations stated above shall not apply to current news periodicals and newspapers


One chart, graph, diagram, cartoon, or picture per book or periodical issue.


A complete poem, if less than 250 words, and if printed on not more than two pages or less; an excerpt of less than 250 words from a larger poem.


A complete article, story, or essay of less than 2,500 words; or an excerpt from any prose work of less than 1,000 words or 10% of the total work, whichever is less, but, in any event, a minimum of 500 words (may be expanded to permit the completion of an unfinished prose paragraph).

"Special" Works

Certain works in poetry, prose, or in "poetic prose" (which often contributes language with illustration) are less than 2,500 words in their entirety. Such special works may not be reproduced in their entirety; however, an excerpt comprising less than two of the published pages, and containing less than 10% of the words found in the text, may be reproduced.


The copying is at the instance and inspiration of the individual professor, and the inspiration and decision to use the work, and the moment of its use for maximum teaching effectiveness, are so close in time that it would be unreasonable to expect a timely reply to a request for permission.