"Editor's note: The dates in parentheses indicate the years of each person's significant involvement with Northwestern."
John Evans (1850-97) The only one among the nine founders to have received a college education, John Evans started a successful medical practice in Indiana and at the same time became a deeply religious Methodist. Moving to Chicago, Evans, as both a religious leader and an education proponent, was attracted to the idea of establishing a local university. He was also a savvy investor in real estate and the source of the $1,000 down payment for the original 379 acres that became much of the Evanston campus. During the five years that elapsed between the founders' first meeting in 1850 and the actual opening of Northwestern, Evans and the others worked tirelessly to make the University a reality. He was the brother-in-law of Orrington Lunt, and it was Lunt who suggested that the fledgling town springing up around the University be named for Evans. In 1864 President Lincoln appointed Evans governor of the Colorado Territory. Even though he moved to Denver and stayed there for the rest of his life, Evans continued to donate time and money to Northwestern and served as chair of the Board of Trustees until his death in 1897.
Grant Goodrich (1850-89) An experienced statesman, Grant Goodrich was the perfect catalyst for Northwestern's founding. The first recorded meeting of the founders was held in his law office on May 31, 1850, and he framed the Northwestern charter, engineering its passage in the Illinois General Assembly. Goodrich also took part in politics, espousing passionate antislavery views. Goodrich's temperance beliefs were the motivating agent for the amendment to Northwestern's charter prohibiting the sale of alcohol within four miles of the University.
Orrington Lunt (1850-97) Another founder, Orrington Lunt, came to Chicago in 1842, where he made a fortune in the grain exchange. Mid-career, however, Lunt suffered a devastating financial blow, and he retired from the commodities business entirely. This left him with more time for the University than any of the other founders. A major donor to Northwestern, Lunt made a significant contribution to build the Lunt Library and served as vice president of the Board of Trustees for the latter part of his life.
Henry S. Noyes (1855-67) In his early 30s, Henry Noyes left the principalship of Newbury Seminary in Vermont for Northwestern because he wanted to spend more time teaching and less on administration. Ironically, for most of his tenure at the University he served as acting president. Noyes was a one-man administration: chief executive, financial agent, faculty treasurer, secretary of the trustees' executive committee and professor of mathematics and Greek.
Robert Cumnock (1868-1916) The Scottish-born Robert Cumnock, a legendary orator, was hired by the Garrett Biblical Institute, where he made good use of his natural gift for elocution, training future ministers in sermon delivery. He also became a part-time lecturer at Northwestern, where his classes were enormously popular from the start. Cumnock went on the Chautauqua speech circuit (a major venue for public speakers), and his success on the circuit brought even more students to his classes. In 1878 Northwestern created a two-year program taught by Cumnock leading to a certificate in oratory. The program grew into the School of Speech.
Erastus O. Haven (1869-72) Born in Boston in 1820, Erastus Haven became a professor of Latin, English literature and history at the University of Michigan, followed by six successful years as Michigan's president before he left for Evanston. One condition Haven imposed before his inauguration as president was that Northwestern become coeducational. He worked with Frances Willard to unite the Evanston College for Ladies with the University.
Nathan Smith Davis (1870-98) In 1859 Nathan S. Davis, a Rush Medical College professor, left to start a medical department at Lind University. Lind went bankrupt, but under Davis the medical school survived as Chicago Medical College, which affiliated with Northwestern in 1870. After the Northwestern connection was solidified, Davis helped transform the Medical School into one of the top medical colleges in the country. He was also a founder of the American Medical Association.
Sarah Rebecca Roland (WCAS1874) (1870-74) Sarah Rebecca Roland was one of two women to enroll in 1869, the year the University officially opened its doors to women. Her class began with 50 men and two women, later reduced by illness, death and academic failure to 30 men and Roland. She majored in arts (in the 1800s this meant an emphasis on literature and languages) and in 1874 was the first woman to receive an undergraduate degree.
Frances Willard (1871-74) After studying art at Northwestern Female College, Frances Willard traveled throughout Europe to learn and write about the art and classical ruins she saw there. On her return she became president of the new Evanston College for Ladies. She and Erastus Haven were discussing a union between the two schools when the Chicago Fire precipitated the economic necessity for the institutions to consolidate, which they did in 1873. However, when Haven left later in the year, he was succeeded by Charles Henry Fowler. Fowler, Willard's former fiancé, wrestled for control of the women's school with her. With no support and increasingly diminishing administrative power, Willard regretfully tendered her resignation as the first dean of women. She went on to become a noted suffragist, women's rights advocate and president of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union, acquiring fame as an orator.
Peter Christian Lutkin (1879-81, 1891-1931) In 1892, when Northwestern's Conservatory of Music was in great financial difficulty, the Board of Trustees appointed a new director, Peter Christian Lutkin, the organist at St. James Church in Chicago. He was so successful, both in recruiting staff and in organizing the program, that in 1895 the conservatory joined the College of Liberal Arts as the Department of Music with Lutkin as director. Under his authority, the school began to offer music to amateurs as well as future professionals, reflecting Lutkin's belief that "... it is quite as necessary to know how to live as how to get a living." The department became the School of Music in 1895.
Greene Vardiman Black (1883-89) In 1886 a private dental college where Greene Vardiman Black taught united with Northwestern, creating the Northwestern University Dental College. He was persuaded in 1897 to be dean, and enrollment jumped as soon his deanship was announced. Under Black's 40-year leadership, the dental school became one of the best in the country. He is known as "the father of modern dentistry."
Daniel B. Fayerweather (1886-90) In 1886 Daniel B. Fayerweather, a wealthy New Yorker, received a letter from a friend of Northwestern's chief fundraiser outlining plans for a new science building. Fayerweather was so impressed that he anonymously donated $45,000 without ever having seen the campus. Dedicated in 1887, the completed Science Hall was hailed in one local newspaper as "an epoch in the history of science at Chicago." It was not until Fayerweather's death in 1890 that he became known as the donor; it was then also discovered that he had willed an additional $100,000 to the University.
Lodilla Ambrose (WCAS1883, G1888) (1888-1908) Directly after graduation Lodilla Ambrose was hired as assistant librarian at Northwestern and shortly thereafter was promoted to top administrator. When it was decided in 1890 that a new library would be built, Ambrose surveyed successful libraries across the country to come up with recommendations. In 1894, when she moved the collection to the new Orrington Lunt Library, Ambrose organized the library in modern fashion, installing Library of Congress card catalogs and a telephone.
Henry Wade Rogers (1890-1900) When he became Northwestern's president, Henry Wade Rogers, the first president not to be an ordained minister, made it clear that one of his goals was to unite the University's colleges into a university in fact as well as name. By 1891 all schools were gathered under Rogers' administration firmly under the Northwestern University banner. When the dean of the law school resigned, the Board of Trustees asked Rogers in 1892 to take over that position as well, a post he held until 1898. Also notable is that during his presidency Northwestern had an openly expressed general policy of "making no distinction on account of sex or color."
John Henry Wigmore (1893-1943) Two years after John Henry Wigmore became dean of the School of Law, it weathered a brief crisis when the University of Chicago attempted to hire away the core of its faculty. Wigmore enlarged the law library, putting together by 1910 a collection rivaled only by Harvard's in this country. Furthermore, Wigmore expanded the school's degree requirement to a four-year curriculum with a prerequisite of three years of college. He also increased course offerings from about 25 in the 1900s to more than 60 by the 1920s.
William A. Dyche (EB1882) (1894-96, 1903-35) William Dyche, the son of former Northwestern trustee and School of Pharmacy founder David R. Dyche, took his father's place on the Board of Trustees, serving from 1894 to 1896 and again from 1903 to 1935. He served two terms as an Evanston alderman and was mayor from 1895 to 1899. In 1903 he became Northwestern's business manager. At the time of his appointment Dyche already had extensive experience in his family's banking business. He raised vital money for the Chicago campus and other expansions and steered the University finances through the early years of the Great Depression.
William Deering and his descendants (1895- present) William Deering, founder of Deering Harvester, which became International Harvester Corp., was one of the nation's leading agricultural industrialists in the 19th century. He served on the University's Board of Trustees for 38 years and from 1895 to 1905 as the board's president. For over 40 years he made so many large current-use gifts to Northwestern that the trustees proposed on numerous occasions to change Northwestern's name to "Deering" University, an honor he declined. In addition, his philanthropy endowed the first two faculty chairs in the sciences and built Fisk Hall. His son, Charles Deering, and grandson, Roger Deering, gave well over $7 million to construct and endow the Charles Deering Library. William Deering's great-grandson, Charles Deering McCormick, was the fourth generation of his family to serve as a Northwestern trustee and continued the family philanthropy by contributing over $16 million to the University Library and its special collections. He endowed 10 professorships to honor faculty excellence in undergraduate teaching.
Milton H. Wilson (1898-1928) Milton Wilson was a longtime trustee, who, like William Deering, made numerous gifts in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. His bequest of $8 million in 1928 was given to endow the College of Liberal Arts and to make it, in his words, "the best undergraduate school possible." After considerable discussion on how best to show their appreciation for Wilson's generosity to Northwestern, the trustees in 1932 voted to name Evanston's south campus, extending from University Place to Willard Place, after him.
Walter Dill Scott (WCAS1895) (1902-16, 1920-39) An Illinois farm boy, Walter Dill Scott won a competitive scholarship from Northwestern at age 22. Yet despite his late entry, he fit in well with the student body, lettering three times in football. In 1898 Scott began studying psychology in Leipzig, Germany. He returned to Northwestern in 1902 and became chair of the department of psychology by 1906. During World War I, Scott served as an officer and was awarded a Distinguished Service Medal for his personnel classification work. The Board of Trustees offered him the presidency in 1920. Scott's first major move as president was to consolidate the University's professional schools on a new campus in Chicago. He also helped establish the Medill School of Journalism.
Willard E. Hotchkiss (1905-17) A professor of economics, Willard Hotchkiss was one of two professors who took the idea of starting a school of commerce to President Abram Harris, who in turn got members of the Chicago business community to support the idea. Hotchkiss was appointed dean of the school, which opened in 1908 with six professors and 255 students. Success was immediate, and before long the school was virtually self-supporting. In 1912 the trustees introduced courses on the Evanston campus under the auspices of the Department of Economics.
Winifred Ward (S05) (1918-50) Winifred Ward transformed storytelling -- something that might merely have been an elective course for future elementary schoolteachers -- into a pioneering new field that she called creative dramatics. In the course of her research, she also fostered the development of children's theater throughout the country, coming to be known as the founder of the field. The Evanston Children's Theatre, begun by Ward and one of the first in the country, became a local institution.
Theodore Koch (1919-41) During Theodore Koch's 22 years at Northwestern as University librarian, the collection increased from 120,000 to 380,000 volumes. He and President Walter Dill Scott were instrumental in obtaining a $1 million gift from the Deering family to build a new library to replace the overcrowded Lunt Library. The completed facility, which was designed with Koch's input, was a Gothic structure with a reading room like that of a medieval English university, and with stained glass windows and shelf space for half a million volumes.
Eddie Doherty (1920-21) Eddie Doherty was a reporter for the Chicago Tribune when he conceived the idea that it should publish a "little evening paper" for apprentices to learn journalism. His project ultimately required the support of an educational institution, so Doherty approached the Northwestern School of Commerce with the project. After Doherty and others at the University met with Capt. Joseph Medill Patterson and Col. R.R. McCormick, coeditors of the Tribune, the newspaper agreed to help finance a school of journalism at Northwestern. It was decided to name the school after Joseph Medill, founder of the Tribune, a pioneer journalist and Patterson's grandfather.
Clarence T. Simon (1920-65) In 1929 Clarence Simon became director of the Speech Re-education Clinic for the study and correction of speech defects. It treated vocal handicaps such as stuttering, lisping and faulty articulation and conducted research on the causes of and remedies for these defects. Simon guided the clinic to success and by the 1940s it was a leading department, which later became the Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders in the School of Speech.
Col. Robert R. McCormick (L06) and his trust/ foundation (1921-present) A 1906 graduate of Northwestern School of Law and owner and publisher of the Chicago Tribune, McCormick supported the establishment of the Medill School of Journalism in 1921 and provided the funding for McCormick Hall at the law school. After his death in 1955, most of his fortune went to create the Robert R. McCormick Charitable Trust, now known as the Robert R. McCormick Tribune Foundation. With current assets of over $2.5 billion, it continues McCormick's legacy of support to Northwestern and has contributed well over $70 million to the University for such projects as the 1990-98 renovation of the Technological Institute ($30 million), the renovation of Fisk Hall, support of the Media Management Center and the $21 million McCormick Tribune Journalism Center adjacent to Fisk Hall, expected to be completed in fall 2002.
Melville Herskovits (1927-63) Melville Herskovits was at the forefront of cultural anthropology when Northwestern hired him from Columbia University. His field of specialization was one rarely examined in depth: the cultures of Africans and the role of Africans in the Americas. An understanding of African culture allowed Herskovits to argue against the repeated assertion of the era that Africans and their descendants had lower natural intelligence and cultural attainments than whites. Over the years scores of young African leaders and other world figures came to Evanston to study with Herskovits. The University Library's Africana collection now bears his name.
William McGovern (1929-64) William McGovern, the man who many say is the real-life model for the film character Indiana Jones, joined Northwestern as an associate professor of political science. He soon became a campus legend because of his popular and entertaining lectures on faraway places. McGovern spent much of his early life in Asia and graduated with the degree of soro, or doctor of divinity, from the Buddhist monastery of Nishi Hongwanji in Kyoto, Japan, in 1917. He then earned a doctorate from Oxford. From Britain he made two expeditions, one to Tibet and one to Peru and the Amazon basin, which led to two books, To Lhasa in Disguise and Jungle Paths and Inca Ruins.
Joe Miller (J29) (1929-75) Joe Miller provided the creative leadership behind the first Waa-Mu show in 1929. The song-and-dance review was a success, and Miller, eventually dean of students and director of student affairs, went on to help write and produce the show every year for decades. Life magazine called Waa-Mu "the most lavish college show in America."
Alvina Krause (S28, GS33) (1930-63) As the driving force behind the School of Speech's move from a one-semester acting course to a full three-year program, Alvina Krause helped build Northwestern's reputation as a theater powerhouse. Ralph Dennis, dean of the School of Speech, hired her away from Hamline University in 1930 to be an instructor in voice and interpretation. Krause directed productions at the University Theater and also ran a summer stock program in Pennsylvania. At least three of Krause's pupils won Academy Awards, and she left her mark on generations of actors whom she trained.
Vladimir Ipatieff (1931-52) Scientist Vladimir Ipatieff arrived in Chicago from Russia in 1931 with visa problems and a need for an academic home. Under an agreement with Universal Oil Products Co., now called UOP LLC and based in Des Plaines, Ill., Ipatieff established a laboratory at Northwestern, where he conducted cutting-edge research on petroleum. Ipatieff and his first research assistant, Herman Pines, discovered a revolutionary process to refine oil, using a catalyst to convert waste gases to high-octane aviation fuel, which provided a crucial Allied advantage in World War II. After Ipatieff's death in 1952, it was discovered that he had willed a very large gift to Northwestern.
Bergan Evans (1932-74) Bergan Evans, hired in the 1930s, was renowned on campus for his Introduction to Literature course, which held the attention of students for hours. His magnetic personality also made him a natural for television. Evans first appeared as a permanent panelist on the talk show Majority Rules in 1949 and went on to create and host a nationally broadcast quiz show called Down You Go. Until his retirement Evans remained one of the most popular professors on campus.
J. Roscoe Miller (M29) (1933-70) "Rocky" Miller was the president who brought Northwestern through the complacent 1950s and the turbulent 1960s. He also oversaw some of the greatest growth in Northwestern's history. While dean of the Medical School, Miller was tapped for the presidency in 1949. Much of his legacy during his long tenure lies in physical additions and improvements to the campus: Kresge Centennial Hall, McGaw Memorial Hall, the J. Roscoe Miller Campus (also known as the lakefill campus), the University Library and the McGaw Medical Center, along with many other smaller buildings.
Walter P. Murphy (1936-42) Successful inventor and manufacturer of equipment for railroad freight cars, Murphy gave $35 million between 1939 and 1942 to build the Technological Institute complex, still one of the largest academic facilities in the country under one roof. The gift also created Northwestern's cooperative engineering program, a special interest of Murphy's, and endowed the engineering school at the University.
Jean Hagstrum (G38) (1940-81) Jean Hagstrum was celebrated at Northwestern as an academic visionary, notably as a leader of the Faculty Planning Committee from 1965 to 1970. During Hagstrum's tenure on the committee, it issued a two-volume report -- formally titled A Community of Scholars but commonly known as the Hagstrum Report -- proposing a host of academic reforms, one of which led to the creation of what are now 11 residential colleges. Hagstrum was also a leading scholar with wide-ranging intellectual interests in literature.
The Searle Family (1943-present) Under the leadership of John G. Searle and his son Daniel C. Searle, both longtime Northwestern trustees, the Searle family and its charitable trusts have provided enormous benefit to the University's biomedical sciences. No other Northwestern major donor has done as much to provide funds for faculty and their research in fields such as genetics, developmental biology, molecular medicine, gene therapy, neuroscience and structural biology. John G. Searle served as the chair of the Board of Trustees from 1964 to 1970, and along with his predecessor Wesley M. Dixon, was a catalyst for the creation of the Evanston campus' lakefill. In addition, the Searle family funded the Searle Student Health Center in 1961, the Searle Medical Building in 1965, the Frances Searle Building for Communicative Disorders and the Searle Center for Teaching Excellence.
Foster G. McGaw (H73) (1945-86) Longtime Northwestern trustee and founder of American Hospital Supply Corp., Foster McGaw made three leadership gifts, among many other contributions, for three critically important University needs between 1950 and 1975. The first gift built McGaw Memorial Hall in 1952, providing a fieldhouse and convocation center; the second built Alice S. Millar Chapel and Religious Center in 1964 (named after McGaw's mother); and the third created and endowed the McGaw Medical Center of Northwestern University, the organization that binds the University, its Medical School and its five affiliated hospitals.
Richard Leopold (1948-present) Coming to Northwestern after 10 years of teaching at Harvard, Richard Leopold quickly became known as a brilliant lecturer who engaged his students through the Socratic method. His 8 a.m. American Foreign Policy class was legendary for filling up quickly. Leopold alumni include former U.S. Sen. George McGovern (G53) of South Dakota, U.S. Rep. and House Minority Leader Richard Gephardt (S62) of Missouri and NBC correspondent John Palmer (S58).
The Henry Crown Family (1950-present) Led by Col. Henry Crown's son, Lester Crown (McC49), the Crown family has made key major gifts beginning in the 1960s that provided essential buildings and endowed centers. Among these were the Rebecca Crown Center, the main administration building; the Henry Crown Sports Pavilion; many renovated laboratories and classrooms in the Technological Institute; and the creation of the Crown Family Center for Jewish Studies. Lester Crown has been a University trustee for over 30 years.
Clarence Ver Steeg (1950-present) In 1961 history professor Clarence Ver Steeg lobbied successfully for a new library and headed a committee that planned and oversaw its construction. The facility ultimately cost $12 million and opened in 1970. Ver Steeg was asked in 1962 to help formulate a broad academic plan, leading to the creation of the Faculty Planning Committee, which he headed until the late 1960s. Among other achievements, the committee played vital roles in the transformation of the School of Business into the Kellogg Graduate School of Management and the transition of the University into a leading research institution.
Richard Ellmann (1951-68) English professor Richard Ellmann, one of the nation's leading literary biographers, first made a significant impression with his 1948 book on the Irish poet William Butler Yeats. That led to Ellmann's greatest work, a treatise on James Joyce, which won the National Book Award in 1960 and was called the "greatest literary biography of the century" by fellow writer and critic Anthony Burgess. Ellmann also authored the definitive biography of Oscar Wilde.
William S. Kerr (1954-80) In 1959 President J. Roscoe Miller asked Northwestern business manager William Kerr to study the issue of physical expansion of the campus. Kerr concluded that filling in the lake would cost two-thirds less than buying land in Evanston and would preserve the campus' spacious feel. Miller accepted the proposal and in October 1960 publicly announced that the next phase of campus building would be done on 74 acres of lakefill. The lake bottom was purchased for $100 an acre, though filling it cost approximately $5 million.
Donald Jacobs (1955-present) After Donald Jacobs became dean of the School of Management in 1975, he began hiring professors who were engaged in research in new fields, and he brought real-world executives to the school. Jacobs also oversaw the construction of the Allen Center and two additions to Leverone Hall as well as a complete renovation of Wieboldt Hall on the Chicago campus. From the 1980s on Kellogg has been consistently ranked in the top tier of management schools.
Eva Jefferson Paterson (WCAS71) (1968-71) Eva Jefferson Paterson was a focal point of the civil rights and antiwar movements on Northwestern's campus in the late 1960s. During her freshman year she participated in a two-day takeover of the Bursar's Office in which minority students demanded that higher numbers of African Americans be admitted to Northwestern. In her junior year Paterson was elected the first black president of student government. A few weeks after her election Paterson led thousands of students in a peaceful and widely supported strike, blockading Sheridan Road to protest the U.S. incursion into Cambodia and the killing of four students at Kent State University and two at Jackson State.
Leon Forrest (1973-97) Leon Forrest was one of the best fiction writers ever to teach at Northwestern. His first two novels, There Is a Tree More Ancient Than Eden and The Bloodworth Orphans, edited by noted author Toni Morrison and published in 1973 and 1977, respectively, established his reputation as a brilliant author. His third work, Two Wings to Veil My Face, won the Carl Sandburg Award in 1984 and the Friends of Literature Prize and Society of Midland Authors Award in 1985. In 1985 Forrest was appointed chair of the African American Studies Department. Divine Days, published in 1992, is considered by many to be his definitive work. His unique writing style, inspired by jazz, is reminiscent of William Faulkner's and James Joyce's work.
Patrick Ryan (EB59) (1978-present) Patrick Ryan is chair of Northwestern's Board of Trustees and, with his wife Shirley Welsh Ryan (WCAS61), has made numerous major gifts for critical needs at Northwestern over the last three decades. These include magnanimous gifts to create Welsh-Ryan Arena, to renovate the stadium and create Ryan Field, to renovate the Technological Institute, to construct the new medical research center (The Robert H. Lurie Medical Research Center) and to endow a substantial number of undergraduate scholarships.
Judd A. Weinberg (EB47) (1982-present) Judd Weinberg has served as a trustee since 1982 and is currently a life trustee, a director of McGaw Medical Center and a member of the Board of Visitors of the Judd A. and Marjorie Weinberg College of Arts and Sciences. A family gift in 1987 established the Weinberg Informatics Training Center, a computer training center for medical students. Another gift, to the College of Arts and Sciences, was an endowment to help the college add faculty and enhance interdisciplinary programs. While he was a student at the business school, Weinberg was a leader, serving as president of his fraternity and the Interfraternity Council. He also worked in the community, helping youth groups in Evanston. After graduation Weinberg married Marjorie Gottlieb (WCAS50). In 1998 the College of Arts and Sciences was renamed in honor of Weinberg and his late wife.
Arnold Weber (1985-present) When Arnold Weber became president of Northwestern in 1985, one of his first objectives was to reform the University's finances. He established a new staff for planning and finance, announced that budgets would no longer be flexible and installed computer programs that displayed a warning if a department faced a deficit. The deans and other administrators snapped to attention, and the University's finances stabilized in a remarkably short period. Weber also began program review, in which each academic and administrative unit in the University was examined in seven-year cycles.
Reuben Feinberg (1988-present) A local Chicago banker and philanthropist, Reuben Feinberg was treated by Northwestern Medical School faculty after a 1987 heart attack and in continuing gratitude began a philanthropic relationship with the University and its Medical School that led to the creation and endowment of Northwestern's Feinberg Cardiovascular Research Institute and the Frances Feinberg Clinical Neuroscience Institute. A related major gift to Northwestern Memorial Hospital helped to fund the Feinberg Pavilion, the outpatient facility of the new $600 million hospital.
Ann Lurie (1991-present) Ann Lurie is a Chicago philanthropist and Northwestern trustee whose late husband, Robert, was an entrepreneur and partner of Sam Zell. Together they bought and revitalized financially troubled companies nationwide. Lurie's gift of $17.5 million endowed and created The Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center of Northwestern University and has made it into a leading international institute in cancer research and clinical treatment. Her gift of $40 million in early 2000 is the lead gift in funding The Robert H. Lurie Medical Research Center, a new $200 million research building on the Chicago campus, which will be the most significant biomedical research center in Illinois.
Henry S. Bienen (1995-present) During his tenure as Northwestern's 15th president, Henry Bienen has made a significant mark on the University's future. Through several initiatives Bienen has given tangible expression to his bedrock belief in the value of meaningful intellectual cross-fertilization, often across traditional academic lines. In 1998 the University under his auspices launched Campaign Northwestern, a $1 billion fundraising effort that reached its goal ahead of schedule this winter (the goal has been raised to $1.4 billion). The campaign's success has led to the ongoing realization of another of Bienen's objectives, the strengthening of Northwestern's already impressive research capabilities and its graduate-level programs.