Academic Training (AT)


Academic Training (AT) is employment authorization allowing J-1 students to gain practical experience that is directly related to their academic program of study. AT may include, but is not limited to, internships, practicum, cooperative education, and other types of practical experience gained through off-campus employment.

General Information

  • AT may be authorized before the completion of an academic program.
  • AT done prior to program completion is deducted from the total amount available upon completion. (See Authorization Periods)
  • AT is generally used after the completion of an academic program.
  • AT is awarded on a full-time basis—part-time employment is not deducted at a half-time rate.
  • AT authorization from the IO must be received prior to commencing employment.

Eligibility for AT
Conditions of AT
When to Apply?
Application Procedures and Required Documentation
Change in Employer
J-1 Academic Training Employment Resources

Eligibility for AT

  • Student must be in good academic standing.
  • Student must be maintaining J-1 status (including maintaining adequate health insurance, as stipulated by the U.S. Dept of State—see p. 2 of Form DS-2019).
  • AT employment must be directly related to academic program of study.
  • Student must have an offer of employment.

Conditions of AT

  • Undergraduate and graduate students are eligible for up to eighteen months of AT.
  • Any student (graduate or undergraduate) in a program less-than eighteen months may be eligible for a period of AT equivalent to the length time spent in a full-time course of study in the U.S. (i.e. a nine month academic program equates to nine months of AT.)
  • Doctoral students are eligible for two 18-month periods of AT. However; the second period is only awarded once the PhD has been completed.
  • A student must apply for AT prior to the expiration of the DS-2019 or prior to the completion of the academic program, whichever is earlier.
  • It is the responsibility of the student to maintain a valid DS-2019 for the duration of the AT period. If an extension is needed, contact the IO. Plan ahead!
  • Post-Completion AT must be paid employment, or you must provide proof of sufficient funds to support yourself during the training period.
  • Your authorized period of academic training will begin on the day after you complete your studies, whether or not you begin working on this day.

When to Apply?

Students applying for pre-completion AT must apply prior to the start-date of their employment. Any student working off-campus before receiving authorization is in violation of their immigration status. All applications for AT require an offer letter and a completed application in order to be authorized.

  • A student must apply for AT before the expiration date listed on the DS-2019 or prior to the completion of the academic program, whichever is earlier.
  • Once all application materials are completed, they should be submitted to the International Office during walk-in advising hours.
  • Completed applications generally require 3-4 days to process. Plan ahead!

NOTE: PhD students who have completed their programs, and who are currently working in the first 18-month period of AT should apply for the second period of 18-months at least 30-days prior to the end-date of the first 18-month period.

Application Procedures and Required Documents

Step 1: Obtain an offer letter from your prospective employer. The letter must include all of the following: (Sample Employment Offer Letter)

  • Job title
  • Brief description of employment
  • Start and end dates of employment
  • Address of location of employment
  • Salary
  • Number of hours to be worked per week
  • Name, address, phone number, and e-mail of direct supervisor

Step 2: Complete Academic Advisor's Recommendation Form and give to your Academic Advisor for approval. 

Step 3: Submit both the employment letter and Academic Advisor Recommendation Form to the IO during walk-in advising hours.

Your international student advisor at the IO will evaluate and authorize your period of requested AT. Once authorized, you will receive a new DS-2019 (with AT information included).


  • Travel outside the U.S. before the completion of the academic program at Northwestern requires a valid passport (six-months into the future), valid J-1 visa stamp, and valid DS-2019.
  • Travel outside the U.S. after completion of the academic program requires a completed AT application and approval prior to departure. Plan ahead and contact the IO if you require assistance.
  • Post-doctoral AT is authorized in 18-month increments. To receive the second 18-month period of AT, a PhD student must have completed all degree requirements (including defense, revisions, and submission)

Change in Employer

If you wish to change your job/employer, you must complete the entire application procedures outlined above, prior to terminating the already authorized employment, and before beginning the new employment.

If your employment is terminated unexpectedly, your authorization is terminated as well. In this instance, you are required to either leave the U.S. or change your status within 30-days of termination.

Consult the IO immediately if there are changes in your employment or for any additional questions.

J-1 Academic Training Employment Resources

Social Security Number
In order to be paid, you are required to provide your employer with a SSN (Social Security Number). For more information about applying for an SSN, please refer to Social Security Guide for International Students and Scholars

Social Security Taxes
As a J-1 student you are exempt from paying Social Security (F.I.C.A.) taxes as long as you remain a "non-resident alien" for tax purposes (see Internal Revenue Service Publication 519, "U.S. Tax Guide for Aliens").

Federal, State, and Local Taxes
Unless you qualify under a tax treaty between the U.S. and your home country government, your earnings as a J-1 student will be subject to applicable to U.S. federal, state and local taxes, and employers are required by law to withhold those taxes from your paycheck. You are required to file a U.S. federal income tax return by April 15 of the year following the year in which you were employed.